Scientists solve puzzle of chickens that are half male and half female
10 March 2010
A puzzle that has baffled scientists for centuries - why some birds appear to be male on one side of the body and female on the other - has been solved by BBSRC-funded researchers from The Roslin Institute at the University of Edinburgh. This discovery will help our understanding of sexual development in birds and could throw light on the molecular basis for gender differences in their biology and physiology, such as the development of organs including heart and brain. The study is published in the journal Nature
The research, which involved studying rare naturally occurring chickens with white (male) plumage on one side and brown (female) plumage on the other, sheds new light on the sexual development of birds.
It was previously thought that sex chromosomes in birds control whether a testis or ovary forms, with sexual traits then being determined by hormones.
The researchers, however, identified differences between male and female cells that control the development of sexual traits. The scientists have named the phenomenon, cell autonomous sex identity (CASI).
The findings, which are scientifically revolutionary in the field, may also be relevant to why males and females differ in behaviour and in susceptibility to disease.
They could also lead to improvements in poultry production - identification of some of the molecular differences between male and female cells should lead to better tests for sexing embryos prior to hatch. It might even be possible to devise ways of obtaining the growth characteristics of male birds in females, with improvements in feed efficiency and productivity that could contribute to future food security.
Dr Michael Clinton, who led the study, said: "This research has completely overturned what we previously thought about how sexual characteristics were determined in birds. We now believe that the major factors determining sexual development are built into male and female cells and derive from basic differences in how sex chromosome genes are expressed. Our study opens a new avenue for our understanding of sexual development in birds.
"It also means we must now reassess how this developmental process occurs in other organisms. There is already some evidence that organs such as the heart and brain are intrinsically different in males and females and birds may provide a model for understanding the molecular basis for these gender differences."
The group will now study the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences between male and female cells with a £800,000 grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the UK's leading biosciences agency.
BBSRC is the UK funding agency for research in the life sciences. Sponsored by Government, BBSRC annually invests around £450M in a wide range of research that makes a significant contribution to the quality of life in the UK and beyond and supports a number of important industrial stakeholders, including the agriculture, food, chemical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors.
BBSRC provides institute strategic research grants to the following:
- The Babraham Institute
- Institute for Animal Health
- Institute for Biological, Environmental and Rural Studies (Aberystwyth University)
- Institute of Food Research
- John Innes Centre
- The Genome Analysis Centre
- The Roslin Institute (University of Edinburgh)
- Rothamsted Research
The Institutes conduct long-term, mission-oriented research using specialist facilities. They have strong interactions with industry, Government departments and other end-users of their research.
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