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How Campylobacter grows in the gut could be key to its eradication from poultry
18 March 2011
The Institute of Food Research, an Institute of the BBSRC, and the University of Sheffield have recently published new findings describing how well Campylobacter is equipped to survive in the gut of birds.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of foodborne illness in the UK, responsible for an estimated 400,000 cases each year. Although deaths from Campylobacter infection are rare, the annual cost to the UK economy is over £500M. The main source of the Campylobacter is poultry meat. Although this bacterium does not cause disease in poultry, it does contaminate the carcass and so can enter the human body as a result of poor kitchen hygiene and improper cooking.
Campylobacter cells dividing. Image: Mary Parker, IFR
Reducing the levels of Campylobacter in the food chain, and ultimately the incidence of Campylobacter infection in humans, is an aim of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Defra and the Food Standards Agency, and to help achieve this, it is essential that we understand the biology of Campylobacter, and how it survives in the guts of both birds and mammals.
The guts of both birds and humans contain large populations of bacteria that are essential to digestion and wellbeing. There is keen competition between different bacterial species for available nutrients. Within this, Campylobacter occupies a specific niche that allows it to thrive. While some bacteria produce lactate as a result of their own metabolism, Campylobacter can use this lactate as a source of carbon and energy.
This was opposite to what was predicted based on the gene content of the bacterium, and could point to a way of controlling Campylobacter. Publishing in the journal Environmental Microbiology, the IFR and University of Sheffield have shown that Campylobacter has two new enzyme pathways for the metabolism of lactate. The presence of these novel pathways may allow for designing targeted approaches to eliminate Campylobacter from poultry, without affecting the beneficial microflora in the poultry gut.
Notes to editors
Reference: Thomas, M. T., Shepherd, M., Poole, R. K., van Vliet, A. H. M., Kelly, D. J. and Pearson, B. M. (2011), Two respiratory enzyme systems in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 contribute to growth on L-lactate. Environmental Microbiology, 13: 48-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02307.x
BBSRC is the UK funding agency for research in the life sciences. Sponsored by Government, BBSRC annually invests around £470M in a wide range of research that makes a significant contribution to the quality of life in the UK and beyond and supports a number of important industrial stakeholders, including the agriculture, food, chemical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors.
BBSRC provides institute strategic research grants to the following:
- The Babraham Institute
- Institute for Animal Health
- Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (Aberystwyth University)
- Institute of Food Research
- John Innes Centre
- The Genome Analysis Centre
- The Roslin Institute (University of Edinburgh)
- Rothamsted Research
The Institutes conduct long-term, mission-oriented research using specialist facilities. They have strong interactions with industry, Government departments and other end-users of their research.
11 October 2005
The following stories appear in the October 2005 edition of Business, the quarterly magazine of research highlights from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).
Scientists have developed a new technique that helps make pesticides more effective by removing insects’ ability to exhibit resistance. Their research will extend the effective life of current pesticides, reduce the amount that needs to be sprayed and remove the need for farmers to move to stronger and more harmful chemicals. The new technique relies on applying a chemical to block the insect’s processes that can degrade a pesticide. With the pests newly rendered helpless farmers can apply pesticide to kill them.
Dr Graham Moores, Rothamsted Research, Tel: 01582 763133 ext 2483, e-mail:email@example.com
Fruit fly studies open new avenue in cancer research
Researchers have discovered a family of amino acid transporters that are powerful growth promoters in fruit flies. When the transporters were overexpressed in a fly, its cells became hypersensitive to insulin-like molecules in the body that have a long-term role in promoting cell growth in development and cancer, and the cells grew excessively. If the equivalent genes in humans have the same effect then this discovery could lead to new drugs or even dietary advice that could block their activity and slow down the growth of tumours.
Dr Deborah Goberdhan, University of Oxford, Tel: 01865 282662, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gene delivery vehicle for skeletal regeneration
UK scientists are working on new methods to regenerate cartilage and bone by delivering genes to stem cells within the body to instruct them to turn into bone cells. The new research will use tiny nanoscopic systems that cross the surface of a stem cell and then deliver the genes into that prompt the cell to turn into a bone cell. This method of gene delivery could provide significant healthcare benefits as trauma, degenerative disease and bone loss with old age all lead to patients needing orthopaedic procedures that require new bone.
Professor Richard Oreffo, University of Southampton, Tel: 023 8079 8502, e-mail: email@example.com
'Ending up' with antibody production
Scientists are pioneering a new technique to produce large numbers of antibodies quickly and reliably and this is being used to help the study of dangerous bacteria. The new technique harnesses the unique properties of the C-terminus of a protein to produce a large number of antibodies that will only bind to a specific protein. The antibodies can then be used to identify, count and track the proteins. Proteins are central to many areas of bioscience research as they are often the targets for vaccines, the raw materials for bioprocessing or are employed as environmental biomarkers. Production of panels of antibodies that previously took years may now be possible in just weeks.
Dr Rob Edwards, Imperial College Hammersmith Hospital, Tel: 020 8383 2055, e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Building proteins on demand
A multidisciplinary team of researchers is developing new tools to direct the evolution of proteins, a move that will help the search for new anti-HIV drugs. The scientists have developed an efficient methodology for generating every possible mutation of a single protein and then assembling this into a library to identify which variations are resistant to drugs and which are not. This information can then be used to develop and validate new drugs.
Dr Cameron Neylon, University of Southampton, e-mail: email@example.com
Bringing physical forces to bear
World-leading laser facilities at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire will be harnessed for biological studies thanks to joint funding from two Research Councils. A new laser system will study the bonds between atoms by looking at the unique frequency of their vibration. The new system will be able to take measurements of these ‘vibrational fingerprints’ at a scale so small that they will by able to study how cells repair damaged DNA, how proteins fold and develop new ways of detecting cancerous and pre-cancerous cells.
Professor Tony Parker, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Tel: 01235 445109, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
‘Model gut’ moves to commercialisation
Researchers at the Institute of Food Research in Norwich are moving closer to turning ten years of research on the workings of the human gut into a computer controlled model that will enable scientists to predict the digestive processes of human gut using real food and medicines. The result will be a revolutionary research tool that will enable researchers to examine the physical, chemical and biochemical functions of the gut as a whole.
Zoe Dunford, Institute of Food Research, Tel: 01603 255111, e-mail: email@example.com
The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is the UK funding agency for research in the life sciences. Sponsored by Government, BBSRC annually invests around £380 million in a wide range of research that makes a significant contribution to the quality of life for UK citizens and supports a number of important industrial stakeholders including the agriculture, food, chemical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors. http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk
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