Greater versatility of adult stem cells thanks to 3D lab experiments
31 March 2011
A type of adult stem cell is now proving itself more versatile for research and therapies thanks to revolutionary 3D experiments. These cells have already shown great promise for repairing damaged bone and cartilage but until now have been fairly limited in the types of cells they can form in the laboratory.
Dr Paul Genever from the University of York will be speaking later today (31 March) at the annual UK National Stem Cell Network science meeting. He will tell the gathered audience of world-class scientists about his work to grow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) - currently one of the leading candidates to be used in stem cell therapies - as tiny spheres. Under these conditions MSCs show potential to become a variety of different cell types including, possibly, the early precursors to heart muscle cells. The work is funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Smith & Nephew.
3D mesenchymal stem cells labelled with green and red fluorescent dyes.
Image: Dr Paul Genever
MSCs are common in children and adults and quite easy to find in blood, bone marrow, and many other tissues. They are already being used to repair bone in a small number of patients with severe fractures or bone disease.
Dr Genever's experiments hope to recreate the microscopic 3D environment that stem cells would normally occupy inside our bodies and so give an accurate approximation of the factors that might influence the ability of MSCs to eventually produce different types of cell for regenerative medicine.
Dr Genever said "In the past we've grown MSCs in 2D layers in the lab and they are only really strongly inclined to become bone, fat or cartilage - they are very useful for research and therapy, but in both cases would largely be limited to these three cell types.
"Our 3D technique aims to recreate the nutrients, oxygen levels and mechanical forces that these cells would normally experience inside our bodies. By growing the cells as 3D spheres of microscopic size instead of in a 2D layer, they specialise their roles more rapidly and more completely and also appear to be able to become a greater range of cell types. This shows that they are quite a bit more versatile than we thought and so are a very exciting prospect for the use of these cells in therapies."
The spheres used are made of aggregates of MSCs and are tiny, measuring only 200-300 micrometers across - about half the size of a dust mite. Within these spheres it is possible to monitor the effects of interactions between several cells and between cells and other supporting structures. The MSCs can also be combined with other types of cells that they would usually be associated with such as endothelial cells, which are found on the surfaces of blood vessels.
Professor Douglas Kell, Chief Executive, BBSRC said "Stem cells are a vital part of normal development and healthy repair. Stem cell biology is subtle and complicated and this discovery will help to ensure that results from laboratory experiments offer a good approximation of what is happening with stem cells under normal circumstances inside humans and other animals."
The UK National Stem Cell Network (UKNSCN) acts as a network for stem cell researchers and all stakeholders. It aims to bring coordination and coherence to a range of national and regional activities in the field of stem cell research. Its overall mission is to promote and enhance the coordination of research across the sub-disciplines of stem cell science, thereby helping to speed to translation basic research into therapeutic applications.
2011 will be the fourth UKNSCN Annual Conference, following on from successful events in Edinburgh (2008), Oxford (2009) and Nottingham (2010). This year's conference in Nottingham was the biggest yet with 450 delegates and 45 trade exhibitors. Given the past demand for places and the expected increase in overseas participation, early registration is recommended.
The UKNSCN secretariat receives financial support from four of the UK Research Councils:
- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) - £60k
- Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) - £30k
- Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) - £30k
- Medical Research Council (MRC) - £60k
The Network operates for all stakeholders in UK stem cell research. The secretariat is operated through BBSRC on behalf of all the Government sponsors of stem cell research, including the Research Councils, the Department of Health, the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills and the Technology Strategy Board. Its work is governed by a sponsors' Management Board, supported by an expert Advisory Committee.
BBSRC is the UK funding agency for research in the life sciences. Sponsored by Government, BBSRC annually invests around £470M in a wide range of research that makes a significant contribution to the quality of life in the UK and beyond and supports a number of important industrial stakeholders, including the agriculture, food, chemical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors.
BBSRC provides institute strategic research grants to the following:
- The Babraham Institute
- Institute for Animal Health
- Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (Aberystwyth University)
- Institute of Food Research
- John Innes Centre
- The Genome Analysis Centre
- The Roslin Institute (University of Edinburgh)
- Rothamsted Research
The Institutes conduct long-term, mission-oriented research using specialist facilities. They have strong interactions with industry, Government departments and other end-users of their research.
UKNSCN Press Office